An Overview on Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Stents

T. G. Bhuvana *

Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Biotechnology Department, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is commonly called coronary heart disease, a condition with inadequate supply of blood and micronutrient to heart due to narrowing of arteries. Generally, symptoms are not seen in early stages but as disease progress common signs such as discomfort in chest, shortness of breath, tiredness and irregular heartbeats are detected.  Primarily, CAD was one of the uncommon causes of death in the start of 20th century. But this scenario was changed from mid 1960s as peaks were observed in CAD deaths. At present, CAD is leading cause of death worldwide, though there is significant decline. However, there are treatments available for this medical condition such as angioplasty and stent placement. In this review, we present a detail study on diagnosis, risk factors, potential treatment options using different stents and their availability as well as relevant benefits. Furthermore, the future prospects of stent technology are also discussed.

Keywords: Coronary artery disease, diagnosis and treatment, stents, bare metal stents, drug eluting stents, resorbable and biodegradable stents

How to Cite

Bhuvana, T. G. (2022). An Overview on Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Stents. Asian Journal of Research in Cardiovascular Diseases, 4(1), 207–213. Retrieved from


Cassar A, Holmes DR, Rihal CS, Gersh BJ. Chronic coronary artery disease: Diagnosis and management. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009;1130–46.

Sreeniwas Kumar A, Sinha N. Cardiovascular disease in India: A 360 degree overview; 2020.


Rao M, Xavier D, Devi P, Sigamani A, Faruqui A, Gupta R, et al. Prevalence, treatments and outcomes of coronary artery disease in Indians: A systematic review. Indian Heart J. Elsevier B.V. 2015;67:302–10.

Katz A. Physiology of the Heart. 2010 [cited 2022 Aug 20].


Raut BK, Patil VN, Cherian G. Coronary artery dimensions in normal Indians. Indian Heart J. Elsevier. 2017;69:512.

Heart RH-H views: the official journal. Risk factors for coronary artery disease: Historical perspectives. 2017.

Kr Malakar A, Choudhury D, Halder B, Paul P, Uddin A, Chakraborty S. A review on coronary artery disease, its risk factors, and therapeutics; 2019.

Nelson AJ, Ardissino M, Psaltis PJ. Current approach to the diagnosis of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease: More questions than answers. Ther Adv Chronic Dis. SAGE Publications Ltd. 2019;10.

Sdogkos E, Xanthopoulos A, Giamouzis G, Skoularigis J, Triposkiadis F, Vogiatzis I. Diagnosis of coronary artery disease: potential complications of imaging techniques. Acta Cardiol. Taylor and Francis Ltd. 2022;77:279–82.

Castaneda-Zuniga WR, Formanek A, Tadavarthy M, Vlodaver Z, Edwards JE, Zollikofer C, et al. The mechanism of balloon angioplasty. Radiology. 1980;135:565–71.

Dotter CT. Transluminal angioplasty: A long view. Radiology. 1980;135:561–4.

Yu Jia Z, Sun Song Y, Jon Sheen J, Goo Kim J, Hee Lee D. Endovascular recanalization of symptomatic non–acute intracranial artery occlusion: Procedural and mid-term clinical outcomes in the anterior circulation. Interv Neuroradiol; 2019.

Stents cheaper, but not all get benefit | India News - Times of India. [cited 2022 Aug 19].


Schmidt T, Abbott J. Coronary Stents: History, Design, and Construction. J Clin Med. 2018;7:126.

Hu T, Yang C, Lin S, Yu Q, Wang G. Biodegradable stents for coronary artery disease treatment: Recent advances and future perspectives. Mater Sci Eng C. Elsevier B.V; 2018;91:163–78.

Lau KW, Johan A, Sigwart U, Hung JS. A stent is not just a stent: Stent construction and design do matter in its clinical performance. Singapore Med. J; 2004.

J. Guerra A, Ciurana J. Stent’s Manufacturing Field: Past, Present, and Future Prospects. Angiography. IntechOpen; 2019.

Bangalore S, Toklu B, Amoroso N, Fusaro M, Bmj SK. Bare metal stents, durable polymer drug eluting stents, and biodegradable polymer drug eluting stents for coronary artery disease: Mixed treatment. 2013.

Wadhera P, Alexander T, Nallamothu BK. India and the coronary stent market getting the price right. Circulation. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2017;135:1879–81.

Hospital A. Cardiac Stents Pricing to patient - Apollo Hospitals. Apollo Hosp. Website. 2017 [cited 2022 Aug 20]


Lüscher TF, Steffel J, Eberli FR, Joner M, Nakazawa G, Tanner FC, et al. Drug-eluting stent and coronary thrombosis: Biological mechanisms and clinical implications. Circulation. 2007; 1051–8.

Stents DC. Drug-Eluting Coronary-Artery Stents; 2013

Maisel WH, Laskey WK. Drug-eluting stents. Circulation. 2007;115.

Hoeven B Van der, Pires N. HW-I journal of, 2005 undefined. Drug-eluting stents: results, promises and problems. Elsevier; 2007.

Martin D, physics FB-M engineering. Drug-eluting stents for coronary artery disease: a review. Elsevier; 2011.

Sim DS, Jeong MH, Ahn Y, Kim YJ, Chae SC, Hong TJ, et al. Effectiveness of drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents in large coronary arteries in patients with acute myocardial infarction. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26:521–7.

Tabraiz Alam MS, Ansari AQ, Urooj S, Aldobali M. A review based on biodegradable and bioabsorbable stents for coronary artery disease. Procedia Comput Sci. Elsevier B.V.; 2019;152:354–9.

Bourantas CV, Zhang Y, Farooq V, Garcia-Garcia HM, Onuma Y, Serruys PW. Bioresorbable scaffolds: Current evidence and ongoing clinical trials. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2012;14:626–34.

Zong J, He Q, Liu Y, Qiu M, Wu J, Hu B. Advances in the development of biodegradable coronary stents: A translational perspective. Mater Today Bio. 2022;16.

Zhu J, Zhang X, Niu J, Shi Y, Zhu Z, Dai D, et al. Biosafety and efficacy evaluation of a biodegradable magnesium-based drug-eluting stent in porcine coronary artery. Sci Reports 2021;11:1–12.